India – Size and location ( भारत : आकार और अवस्थिति )

India – Size and location ( भारत : आकार  और  अवस्थिति )

India – Size and location ( भारत : आकार और अवस्थिति )

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India – Size and location

( भारत : आकार  और  अवस्थिति )

 

Some salient features

India (Bharat, Bharatvarsh, Hindustan, Jambudweep, भारत, हिंदुस्तान, हिन्दूस्तान, जम्बुद्वीप) lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. The main land of India extends between latitudes 804′ N and 3706′ N and longitudes 6807′ E and 97025′ E.
  2. The length of mainland of India along east-west is 2933 km approximately, and along north-south is 3214 km approximately.
  3. The east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent.
  4. The Tropic of Cancer (कर्क रेखा) (230 30′ N) divides India into almost two equal halves.
  5. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the states Gujrat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
  6. ‘Andaman & Nicobar islands’ ( a UT or Union Territory) lies to the south-east of the mainland of India in Bay of Bengal.
  7. ‘Lakshadweep islands’ (a UT) lies to the southwest of the mainland of India in Arabian Sea.
  8. The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million sq km.
  9. India’s total area accounts for about 2.4 % of the total Geographical area of the world.
  10. India is the 7th largest country of the world.
  11. India has land boundary of about 15,200 km.
  12. India has a total coast line (including the mainland, Andaman & Nicobar islands, Lakshadweep islands) of 7,516.6 km.
  13. South of about 220 N latitude, India begins to taper and extend towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.
  14. India is bounded by the young fold mountains on the north-west, north and north-east.
  15. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland of India is about 300.
  16. From Gujrat to Arunachal Pradesh(AP), there is a time lag of 2 hours.
  17. The meridian (820 30′ E) passing through Mirzapur in UP (Uttar Pradesh), is taken as the Standard Meridian of India, for general uniform time distribution in the country.

Time along the Standard Meridian (820 30′ E) of India, is taken as the standard time of India and it is called IST (Indian Standard Time). This IST is applied to the whole of the country. So, in spite of 2 hours difference in the time of rising of sun in AP and Gujrat, the watch shows the same time.

  1. The Indian landmass has a central location between the east and the west Asia.
  2. India is a southward extension of the Asian continent.
  3. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connects the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of the East Asia, provide a strategic central location to India.
  4. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with South-east and East Asia from the eastern coast.
  5. No other country has a long coast line on the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed it is India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.
  6. India has 29 states and 7 UT’s (Union Territory) as of now.
  7. India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the north-west; China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north; Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
  8. India shares its water boundaries with the Bay of Bengal on the east, the Indian Ocean on the south and the Arabian Sea on the west.
  9. India’s southern neighbour across the sea consist of two island countries, namely Sri Lanka and Maldives.
  10. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
  11. Maldives islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep islands.
  12. India has had strong Geographical and Historical links with her neighbours.
  13. India’s contacts with the world have continued through the ages, but her relationships through the land routes are much older than her maritime (समुद्री, समुद्रीय, समुद्र के निकट स्थित, समुंदर का) contacts.
  14. The various passes across the mountains in the north have provided passages to the ancient travellers, while the oceans restricted such interaction for a long time.
  15. The Geographical routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient tmes. The ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of the Panchatantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system thus could reach many parts of the world. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. On the other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of dome (गुंबज, गुम्बज, a hemispherical roof, a concave shape whose distinguishing characteristic is that the concavity faces downward ) and minarets (मीनार, धरहरा, धौरहरा, slender tower with balconies ) from west Asia can be seen in different parts of India.

 

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